The Chemjet syringes are designed to treat urban and rural trees depending upon the Oak Wilt disease pressure in your area. The Chemjet has a volume capacity of 5 - 20 mils and when applying propiconazole 14.3% (a systemic fungicide, XMS .. Xylem Mobile Systemic does not require high dilution rates with water,) so treatment is considerably faster, and there is less tissue injury at the injection site as it has a near neutral pH factor. It is most important to treat your trees as a preventative or prophylactic application than as a curative application. Once a tree becomes infected is near impossible to save your tree. It is recommended to premix propiconazole 14.3% with an equal part of water and draw 20 mils of the chemical / distilled water 50-50 solution into the barrel and with 1/ 4" turn of the RED plunger handle into the locking position. This procedure provides the preventive or prophylactic treatment dosage of 10 mils per diameter inch.If you are already treating a tree that is already in the early stages of infection the syringes will have to be refilled and new holes drilled to provide the therapeutic dosage of 20 mils per diameter inch. (infected trees may not draw up to all necessary chemical with the first round of injection due to the vascular system already being blocked by the disease.) Once the syringes are filled with the prescribed amount product, they should be placed in a 2 1/2 or a 5 gallon bucket with the RED plunger handles down and the nozzles upward. This will avoid leakage until they are ready for use. The syringes will contain 20 mils of a 50% formulation of propiconazole / distilled water and to be applied at the rate of one syringe per diameter inch of DBH. Determine the number of syringes to use per tree by determining the circumference. e.g. A tree with a circumference of 60", divide by 3 equals approximately 20 inches Diameter Breast Height. (DBH). A tree with a DBH of 20 inches would require 20 syringes placed approximately 3 inches equidistance around the trunk stem or that is the same as 1 syringe per diameter inch and that will result in the best distribution of the material throughout the entire canopy. (This method provides the exact volume of the fungicide dosage rate ( Propiconazole 14.3 % MEC ) at the preventive rate of 10 mils per diameter inch, in a 50% concentrated solution measured at 20 mils per injector as prescribed for the MACRO injection protocol.) The syringes should be placed in the trunk flares close to the soil ( 2 to 6 inches above the soil line ). It is very important not to place syringes in trunk flare valleys, as poor distribution of the material may occur. Once the tree has been determined, DBH (Diameter at Breast Height), place the syringes on the ground around the tree in the trunk flare areas and proceed with your injection application. In general, Live Oaks and Red Oaks not expressing active disease symptoms are good candidates for preventive trunk flare injection with the fungicide. It appears that Oaks can be infected with the fungus up to a year before active symptoms are expressed. What this means is that an apparently healthy Oak adjacent to a diseased tree may already be infected and in this instance, uptake of the fungicide may be poor. Treatments are typically made from early spring through the entire growing season, in order to allow the fungicide to be taken up and distributed throughout the tree's entire canopy. It is important to understand that wounds made in the spring and summer closed more rapidly than those made during late fall and early winter. Risk/Benefit Clearly the smaller the wound, the less potential for the "degree of injury caused by the wound" to come into play. Accordingly, if we have procedures that will reduce the wound effect these should be employed. ( With the smaller drill sizes, the tree can focus less energy to recover from these smaller drill portals.) Several authors have evidence to demonstrate that the potential risk from macro-injections is quite high when weighed against the benefit. Recent well documented research has shown that micro-injection wounds caused by micro-injection technology can be well tolerated by the tree even when made in the stem approximately from 2’ - 6" above the soil line up to 4.5' above ground. Wounds inflicted below soil level, exposes the tree to serious soil borne microbes and pathogenic infections causing weeping cankers and tissue degradation surrounding the drill portals. Using a battery operated drill with the 11/64" size bit, drill a hole approximately 0.75 to 1.25 inches deep on a 45 degree downward angle to the main trunk where each syringe is to be placed. The holes should extend just into the tree's xylem area ( three outer rings of the sap wood ). It is best to only drill 3 or 4 holes at a time( A hot drill bit may cauterize the surrounding tissue and create a defective drill portal ).Place the syringes into these portals and get them started with the injection process and continue this practice until all injector syringes are installed. Insert the syringes firmly into the tree and seat snugly into each hole in the tree.Once the syringes are in place, unlock the RED plunger handlewith 1/4 " turn and the spring will gently force the chemical into the tree. If you do not get a tight seal, with the open palm of your hand give the Red plunger handle a gentle nudge, and you will hear a popping noise and that signals, you have a water tight seal. The nozzle will seat within a 1/2 inch from the tip of the nozzle, ( Note:The screw thread is to provide greater strength to the nozzle and should not penetrate into the sapwood.) You may have to use a wood chisel to remove some bark tissue in areas where the bark is too thick or the bark furrows are too deep. The applicator should attempt to evenly distribute the chemical through the tree by evenly spacing injection sites around the trunk stem. Proper location of these injection sites is critical for proper distribution of the fungicide through the entire canopy. Inadequate distribution leaves the trees poorly protected.Once the syringes are in place, it will take approximately 3-5 hours for the uptake to be completed. Time to empty can vary depending on the time of the year, humidity, weather conditions, the tree health, soil moisture conditions and bright sun with mild temperatures facilitate faster the uptake. IMPORTANT: At the time of treatment, residents and landowners should be encouraged to water the soil under the trees and beyond the drip line, prior to treatment. This helps to increase its effectiveness as injections under lengthy and extreme drought condition may cause sever damage or phytotoxicity to your trees.The syringes should remain on the treated trees for a maximum of 3-5 hours, but if empty before they can be removed from the tree. If the syringes have not emptied they can be left over night to complete the injection. For trees that have been injected previous years, injection sites can be staggered 3 to 6 inches above the old injection sites. In an effort to achieve good uptake, injections can be made from the trunk flare up to a height of 4 1/2 ' from the soil line. Height of wounds from 2“- 6”’ above ground level up to a height of 4 ½ feet, regardless of height, wounds closed at the same rate, usually within a few weeks. Greater callus formation around wounds in the trunk stem, is somewhat faster compared to that at the base of its trunk. Following removal of the syringes, wash in hot water 120 degrees F. minimum. The pathogen is heat sensitive and 95 degrees F. will destroy the fungus. The injection syringe units will be cleaned of all debris and inspected and regular maintenance will be performed as detailed in the manufacturer's Instructions for use. Prudent preventative maintenance should minimize delays due to equipment malfunction. Malfunctioning equipment should be removed from service and replaced with a working syringe, or may be repaired and returned to service if the problem can be corrected in a reasonable amount of time.